|"Skim off the Cream"|
|This paper is based on the method of oral history ( interviewing migrants in Austria and in Australia) and on research in the Australian Archives/ Canberra and the Austrian Archives / Vienna.
It is the history of people who migrated to Australia between 1947-1978. This people were Austrians as well as a mixed lot of refugees. To be a refugee after World War II in Europe and Austria was a matter of definition. The definition were made by the occupation forces and the refugee organisations and changed in process of time. For the migrants/ refugees the definition was of high importance, it decided if he/ she was allowed to migrate and get support.
In Austria migration was organised by the IRO (International Refugee Organisation) and the ICEM (International Committee for Migration). The Australian Mission were picking fine migrants in Europe ordered by the Department for immigration and its several programmes. Austria became interested by looking for a solution for its refugee problems one one side, on the other side it did not like the way the Australians were searching for skilled workers.
Many Austrians migrated to Australia with the idea in their mind of earning a lot of money and coming back later again to Austria. Income was much higher in Australia. For most refugees migration was a one way ticket to Australia.
For the migrants itself migration was a long process of application, selection and refusal. Eligibility and Hard Core Refugees were main terms in this difficult process. Oral History shows the personal and individual experience with the beginning of getting a refugee/ migrant and finding a solution for this worse situation.
Australia in 1947 was a monocultural society, which is still oriented to the English speaking world today, but which had to find a way of assimilation and integration of migrants. As it had to change and adapt its Immigration policy it changed into an multicultural society with all its problems and possibilities with the important aspect, Multiculturalism is for all Australians.